SCons User Guide 0.98.5

Steven Knight

SCons User's Guide Copyright (c) 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007 Steven Knight

Table of Contents
1. SCons Principles
2. A Caveat About This Guide's Completeness
3. Acknowledgements
4. Contact
1. Building and Installing SCons
1.1. Installing Python
1.2. Installing SCons From Pre-Built Packages
1.2.1. Installing SCons on Red Hat (and Other RPM-based) Linux Systems
1.2.2. Installing SCons on Debian Linux Systems
1.2.3. Installing SCons on Windows Systems
1.3. Building and Installing SCons on Any System
1.3.1. Building and Installing Multiple Versions of SCons Side-by-Side
1.3.2. Installing SCons in Other Locations
1.3.3. Building and Installing SCons Without Administrative Privileges
2. Simple Builds
2.1. Building Simple C / C++ Programs
2.2. Building Object Files
2.3. Simple Java Builds
2.4. Cleaning Up After a Build
2.5. The SConstruct File
2.5.1. SConstruct Files Are Python Scripts
2.5.2. SCons Functions Are Order-Independent
2.6. Making the SCons Output Less Verbose
3. Less Simple Things to Do With Builds
3.1. Specifying the Name of the Target (Output) File
3.2. Compiling Multiple Source Files
3.3. Making a list of files with Glob()
3.4. Specifying Single Files Vs. Lists of Files
3.5. Making Lists of Files Easier to Read
3.6. Keyword Arguments
3.7. Compiling Multiple Programs
3.8. Sharing Source Files Between Multiple Programs
4. Building and Linking with Libraries
4.1. Building Libraries
4.1.1. Building Libraries From Source Code or Object Files
4.1.2. Building Static Libraries Explicitly: the StaticLibrary Builder
4.1.3. Building Shared (DLL) Libraries: the SharedLibrary Builder
4.2. Linking with Libraries
4.3. Finding Libraries: the $LIBPATH Construction Variable
5. Node Objects
5.1. Builder Methods Return Lists of Target Nodes
5.2. Explicitly Creating File and Directory Nodes
5.3. Printing Node File Names
5.4. Using a Node's File Name as a String
6. Dependencies
6.1. Deciding When an Input File Has Changed: the Decider Function
6.1.1. Using MD5 Signatures to Decide if a File Has Changed
6.1.2. Using Time Stamps to Decide If a File Has Changed
6.1.3. Deciding If a File Has Changed Using Both MD Signatures and Time Stamps
6.1.4. Writing Your Own Custom Decider Function
6.1.5. Mixing Different Ways of Deciding If a File Has Changed
6.2. Older Functions for Deciding When an Input File Has Changed
6.2.1. The SourceSignatures Function
6.2.2. The TargetSignatures Function
6.3. Implicit Dependencies: The $CPPPATH Construction Variable
6.4. Caching Implicit Dependencies
6.4.1. The --implicit-deps-changed Option
6.4.2. The --implicit-deps-unchanged Option
6.5. Explicit Dependencies: the Depends Function
6.6. Ignoring Dependencies: the Ignore Function
6.7. The AlwaysBuild Function
7. Construction Environments
7.1. Multiple Construction Environments
7.2. Copying Construction Environments
7.3. Fetching Values From a Construction Environment
7.4. Expanding Values From a Construction Environment
7.5. Modifying a Construction Environment
7.5.1. Replacing Values in a Construction Environment
7.5.2. Appending to the End of Values in a Construction Environment
7.5.3. Appending to the Beginning of Values in a Construction Environment
8. Controlling the External Environment Used to Execute Build Commands
8.1. Propagating PATH From the External Environment
9. Controlling a Build From the Command Line
9.1. Not Having to Specify Command-Line Options Each Time: the SCONSFLAGS Environment Variable
9.2. Getting at Command-Line Targets
9.3. Controlling the Default Targets
9.3.1. Getting at the List of Default Targets
9.4. Getting at the List of Build Targets, Regardless of Origin
9.5. Command-Line variable=value Build Options
9.6. Controlling Command-Line Build Options
9.7. Providing Help for Command-Line Build Options
9.8. Reading Build Options From a File
9.9. Canned Build Options
9.9.1. True/False Values: the BoolOption Build Option
9.9.2. Single Value From a List: the EnumOption Build Option
9.9.3. Multiple Values From a List: the ListOption Build Option
9.9.4. Path Names: the PathOption Build Option
9.9.5. Enabled/Disabled Path Names: the PackageOption Build Option
9.10. Adding Multiple Command-Line Build Options at Once
10. Providing Build Help: the Help Function
11. Installing Files in Other Directories: the Install Builder
11.1. Installing Multiple Files in a Directory
11.2. Installing a File Under a Different Name
11.3. Installing Multiple Files Under Different Names
12. Platform-Independent File System Manipulation
12.1. Copying Files or Directories: The Copy Factory
12.2. Deleting Files or Directories: The Delete Factory
12.3. Moving (Renaming) Files or Directories: The Move Factory
12.4. Updating the Modification Time of a File: The Touch Factory
12.5. Creating a Directory: The Mkdir Factory
12.6. Changing File or Directory Permissions: The Chmod Factory
12.7. Executing an action immediately: the Execute Function
13. Preventing Removal of Targets
13.1. Preventing target removal during build: the Precious Function
13.2. Preventing target removal during clean: the NoClean Function
13.3. Removing additional files during clean: the Clean Function
14. Hierarchical Builds
14.1. SConscript Files
14.2. Path Names Are Relative to the SConscript Directory
14.3. Top-Level Path Names in Subsidiary SConscript Files
14.4. Absolute Path Names
14.5. Sharing Environments (and Other Variables) Between SConscript Files
14.5.1. Exporting Variables
14.5.2. Importing Variables
14.5.3. Returning Values From an SConscript File
15. Separating Source and Build Directories
15.1. Specifying a Variant Directory Tree as Part of an SConscript Call
15.2. Why SCons Duplicates Source Files in a Variant Directory Tree
15.3. Telling SCons to Not Duplicate Source Files in the Variant Directory Tree
15.4. The VariantDir Function
15.5. Using VariantDir With an SConscript File
15.6. Using Glob() with VariantDir
16. Variant Builds
17. Writing Your Own Builders
17.1. Writing Builders That Execute External Commands
17.2. Attaching a Builder to a Construction Environment
17.3. Letting SCons Handle The File Suffixes
17.4. Builders That Execute Python Functions
17.5. Builders That Create Actions Using a Generator
17.6. Builders That Modify the Target or Source Lists Using an Emitter
17.7. Where To Put Your Custom Builders and Tools
18. Not Writing a Builder: the Command Builder
19. Pseudo-Builders: the AddMethod function
20. Writing Scanners
20.1. A Simple Scanner Example
21. Building From Code Repositories
21.1. The Repository Method
21.2. Finding source files in repositories
21.3. Finding #include files in repositories
21.3.1. Limitations on #include files in repositories
21.4. Finding the SConstruct file in repositories
21.5. Finding derived files in repositories
21.6. Guaranteeing local copies of files
22. Multi-Platform Configuration (Autoconf Functionality)
22.1. Configure Contexts
22.2. Checking for the Existence of Header Files
22.3. Checking for the Availability of a Function
22.4. Checking for the Availability of a Library
22.5. Checking for the Availability of a typedef
22.6. Adding Your Own Custom Checks
22.7. Not Configuring When Cleaning Targets
23. Caching Built Files
23.1. Specifying the Shared Cache Directory
23.2. Keeping Build Output Consistent
23.3. Not Using the Shared Cache for Specific Files
23.4. Disabling the Shared Cache
23.5. Populating a Shared Cache With Already-Built Files
23.6. Minimizing Cache Contention: the --random Option
24. Alias Targets
25. Java Builds
25.1. Building Java Class Files: the Java Builder
25.2. How SCons Handles Java Dependencies
25.3. Building Java Archive (.jar) Files: the Jar Builder
25.4. Building C Header and Stub Files: the JavaH Builder
25.5. Building RMI Stub and Skeleton Class Files: the RMIC Builder
26. Troubleshooting
26.1. Why is That Target Being Rebuilt? the --debug=explain Option
26.2. What's in That Construction Environment? the Dump Method
26.3. What Dependencies Does SCons Know About? the --tree Option
26.4. How is SCons Constructing the Command Lines It Executes? the --debug=presub Option
26.5. Where is SCons Searching for Libraries? the --debug=findlibs Option
26.6. Where is SCons Blowing Up? the --debug=stacktrace Option
26.7. How is SCons Making Its Decisions? the --taskmastertrace Option
A. Construction Variables
B. Builders
C. Tools
D. Handling Common Tasks
List of Examples
D-1. Wildcard globbing to create a list of filenames
D-2. Filename extension substitution
D-3. Appending a path prefix to a list of filenames
D-4. Substituting a path prefix with another one
D-5. Filtering a filename list to exclude/retain only a specific set of extensions
D-6. The "backtick function": run a shell command and capture the output